In God’s Land: The Temple of Jerusalem

26 09 2019
Second Temple of Jerusalem built by Herod

The Temple is located in Mount Moriah, over the rock on which God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his son, Isaac (Genesis 22). Though he eventually sacrificed a ram instead of his son, that sacrifice created a blood bound between the Jews and God.

Solomon built the first Temple on that rock to commemorate the blood-bond, and since then, every Jew from all around the world would come here three times a year to renew that sacrifice. The Jews also believe that the rock of Moriah is the foundation of the world because God specifically wanted Isaac sacrificed on it.

There are three covenants feast days in Israel; first is the covenant on Mt. Sinai when God revealed to them the Torah; they keep this day a feast in all Israel, and they call it the Shavuot or the Feast of Pentecost.
The second is Yom Kippur, a day of atonement, and the holiest day of the year in which they recite the “Shema” (Hear oh Israel) as a way of remembering the promises and the third is the feast of Hanukkah or “the miracle of light” a remembrance of the time when the bottle of oil was refilling itself, as Judas Macabee rededicated the Temple profaned by Antiochus Epiphanies.

All the sacrifices in the Temple were done over the rock of Moriah just like Abraham did. The rock was enclosed in the chamber just before the room called Holy of Holies where the Arc of the Covenant rested

In the year 586 BC, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, defeated Israel, ransacked and destroyed the first Temple and stole the Ark of the Covenant and it was lost forever.

When Herod came to power, there was already another temple, the second Temple built by Zerubabel, 520 BC. He didn’t like the fact that access to the Temple was narrow, so he began the expansion of the Temple. He used rocks from the mountain to build temple and it took him 46 years! So you could understand why people where angry when Jesus said he will rebuild the temple in 3 days.
In the Temple, the room called the Holy of Holies was oriented towards the west, which is towards sunset, while the rest of the building was oriented towards the east.

Jesus and his mother came to this Temple re-built by Herod, and it was in this Temple that Jesus went missing for three days while his mother and his father was looking for him.

Roman Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, to suppress the Jewish rebellion, destroyed the second Temple in 70AD, fulfilling the prophesy in Matthew 24:1-2 where Jesus prophesied that the Temple of Jerusalem would be destroyed and that its destruction would be so complete that not one stone would left on another.

Herod’s Temple wall was so big and so compact that to destroy it, the Roman soldeirs had to use explosives and the explosions were heard as far away as in Jericho 25km from Jerusalem. The Roman soldier expected to find gold when they broke into the holy of holies, but there was nothing. They left the ruins for centuries, without building anything on it, perhaps to rob salt into the wounds of the Jewish people and make it clear that they were totally defeated.

65 years after the destruction of the Temple, some remnant Jews regrouped and came back to rebuild the Temple. Led by Rabbi Simon bar Kokhba, they attacked and wiped out the 22nd legion of the Romans army stationed in Jerusalem. This is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt. They established an independent Jewish state which they ruled for three years.
In 135 AD, Roman Emperor Hadrian left Rome with a huge army to crush the revolt. He destroyed 700 villages, and killed one million Jews and sold the rest to slavery at the port city of Caesarea Maritime. It was said that there were so many Jewish slaves that the slave market collapsed. You could buy a healthy Jewish girl for a pair of sandals.

Hadrian emptied Jerusalem of the Jews and brought in all the enemies of the Jewish people to live in Jerusalem. He was the one that brought the Philistines, Palestinian, Syrians and the Edomites. That’s why you have a grand conflict here.

In the 7th century with the first Islamic expansion, the Muslims came and built a mosque over the rock of Moriah, which is today called the Dome of the Rock.

Pictures of Muslim Mosque called the Dome of the rock standing where Herod Temple once stood

We saw the quarry Herod used and the water system that the harmonium 200BC used to bring water to the temple

We went down the tunnel from the western wall all the way to the Antonio fortress viewing the original wall built by Herod. We saw the rituals bathrooms. It was custom that everyone coming into the temple had to take a rituals bath, coming from far. Then they will buy a rituals bathrobe, they would put on a white robe, change their money

Before the six days war, Israel was divided into east and west Jerusalem, with East Jerusalem belonging to Jordan. After Israel won the six day war, they unified Jerusalem under Israeli control and the walls dividing the city were torn down, they gained control and access to the Temple and made it possible for archeologist to begin excavations below the temple to discover the remains of their ancient past.
Each time the archeologists worked, though, there was a trouble with the Muslim who now occupy the temple mount are afraid that the Israelis are doing something under there that will make them fall down.

Despite the Muslim Mosque, “ Dome of the Rock” now standing where the Temple once stood, the children of Israel still believe that the presence of God is still on this mountain, on the Western wall. So they go there to pray , though they can no longer sacrifice the customary ram, the still pray and put pieces of paper .The custom of putting papers on the wall is because in those days not everyone could come to temple, they would give a prayer request to a friend to put in the wall

Pictures of Western Wall or Wailing Wall

We stood in front of where the holy of Holy temple

We saw the base of mount Moriah and we stood on a street paved by the Hasmonean Dynasty when there was no wall.

Standing at the entrance of the tunnel

Pictures under the tunnel of the Temple

We saw the system of tunnels to bring water from Bethlehem to Jerusalem. These tunnels were rebuilt by Herod to channel water to the temple. The waters are collected in cisterns. The temple needs water because of all the animals killed there. We came out directly one the Fortress of Antonio, also called Ecce homo, which is in the Muslims quarters

Lectures on Antonia Fortress

Herod built the Antonia Fortress to help the Romans keep an eye on the Temple because the Jews asked them not to enter into the temple area. Though the Roman agreed, because of fear of the huge crowd, they requested that Herod build a Fortress Antonia next to the Temple, from where they could house legions to deploy incase trouble broke out in the temple, like a rapid reaction squad. Even Pilate didn’t live in Jerusalem, but in Caesarea Maritime, yet, he would come to Jerusalem, to the Fortress, for the feast and keep an eye out for trouble.

Ecce Homo

In 1857, Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne, a French Jew and former atheist who converted to Catholicism and became a priest, decided to purchase the site and start a convent The sisters of Zion whose mission is to build bridges between Jews and Muslims.

The sister of Zion, found on the pavement to an etching of a game by Roman soldiers discovered in 1864 involving the execution of a “monk king”, the flagstones of Gabbatha, which John 19:13 describes as the location where Pontius Pilate adjudged Jesus’ trial

Lithostrotos: Roman pavement, the site of Jesus’ trial at the Antonia Fortress. An etching of the game of the Kings, a game played by Roman soldiers which they throw dice until one loses is the called king; this was what they did to Jesus. According to Bill Slot, “The Kings Game:” an actual board game etched into the stones, on which the Roman soldiers played to pass the time in between guard shifts or patrol duty, tossing dice carved from sheep knuckles and moving tokens around a crown-shaped board. This game, known to historians as Basileus, has been found throughout the Roman Empire, wherever soldiers were fighting off boredom. Many Christian scholars have considered the irony of “The King’s Game” in the very place where, a century earlier, Roman soldiers had mocked Jesus, “King of the Jews,” crowning him with thorns, dressing him in royal purple and taunting him.

We celebrated Mass at the Church of Ecce Homo.

Pictures as we walked to the Church of Ecce Home after exiting the tunnels

Basilica of Ecce Homo, named for Pontius Pilate’s Ecce homo speech which is traditionally thought to have taken place on the pavement below the church.

Mass at Ecce Homo

Between 1858 and 1862, he built a basilica (the Church of Ecce Homo), which overlaps part of the gateway arch called Ecce homo. Though, the arch itself is not from the time of Pilate, still it is in this very place, in the Antonia Fortress, that that Jesus was mocked.

Jewish quarters

After destroying Jerusalem, Hadrian built a new city on the ruins and called it Aelia Capitolina and built the Cardo Maximus generally lined with shops and vendors, and served as a hub of economic life. Cardo Maximus is still visible on the Jewish Quarter Street, though the original pavement lies several meters below the modern street level. In the 7th century, when Jerusalem fell under Muslim rule, the Cardo became an Arab-style marketplace. Remains of the Byzantine Cardo were found in the Jewish Quarter excavations

Walking through the Jewish Quarter and Cardo Maximus

The Jewish Quarter is one of the four traditional quarters of the Old City of Jerusalem
The quarter is inhabited by around 2,000 residents Jews and is home to numerous yeshivas and synagogues, most notably the Hurva Synagogue, destroyed numerous times and rededicated in 2010.(source Wikipedia)

Visit to the Hurva Synagogue


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